P&GJ's 2014 international pipeline survey indicates 65,746 miles of pipeline are in various stages of construction or planned. Of these, 33,801 miles account for projects in the planning and engineering phase, while 31,945 miles are in various stages of construction.
A breakdown of the pipeline mileage planned and under construction in the six geopolitical regions used in the report shows the following(see map): South-Central America and Caribbean--6,099 miles; Middle East--2,355 miles; Africa--8,558 miles; Asia Pacific--25,636 miles; former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries--15,781 miles; and Western Europe and European Union countries--2,381 miles. For further information on these and other pipeline projects, see P&GJ's sister publication, Pipeline News.
Despite several African nations continuing to deal with ongoing pipeline theft and threats to oil companies, industry analysts say many hold promise for future activity. For example, East Africa exploration activity is projected to increase after foreign oil and gas companies made a series of sizable discoveries in Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Madagascar.
Moreover, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that South Africa holds 390 Tcf of technically recoverable shale gas resources. This came even after environmental concerns led the govern to place a moratorium on shale gas exploration from April 2011 to September 2012. In October 2013, the government released proposed new regulations on exploration of shale resources, however, international companies are still awaiting shale exploration permits.
Regardless of the challenges, pipelines are being planned and constructed in the region.
In Angola, ExxonMobil recently started up the CLOV project, expected to reach a capacity of 160,000 bpd. CLOV, located 87 miles off Luanda, includes 34 wells and eight manifolds connected by 112 miles of subsea pipelines to a floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel and crude oil offloading terminal.
The 1,000-foot-long, 198-foot-wide FPSO can store up to 1.8 MMbbls of oil. Natural gas produced at CLOV is exported through a subsea pipeline to an Angola LNG plant in Soyo.
Technip is under contract to Total on the Moho Nord joint development project off the Republic of Congo. Located 46 miles southwest of Pointe-Noire in water depths of 1,500 to 4,000 feet, it is the largest ever in the region and involves the simultaneous development of the Moho Bilondo "Phase I bis" and Moho Nord projects. Phase I includes subsea wells tied back to an existing floating production unit with a processing capacity of 40,000 bpd.
The Moho Nord project involves a tension leg platform, a floating production unit with processing capacity of 100,000 bpd and a 50-mile pipeline to the onshore Djeno terminal. The joint development will produce 140,000 bpd at its peak in 2017.
In Ghana, AECOM Technology Corp. won a $15.6 million contract from Ghana National Gas Co. for the Western Corridor Gas Infrastructure Development. The project includes a 27-mile shallow-water section of offshore pipeline from Jubilee field to Atuabo, a gas-processing plant at Atuabo, a 68-mile onshore pipeline from Atuabo to Aboadze, a 46-mile onshore lateral pipeline from Essiama to Prestea, a natural gas liquids export system in Domunli and other infrastructure, such as storage facilities and an office complex.
Italy's gas network Snam Rete Gas and the Galsi consortium started construction of a 560mile pipeline to transport Algerian gas to Italy. Of this, 373-miles will be a subsea pipeline section from Algeria to south of Sardinia in water depths of about 2,800 meters. The Italian section...